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acemi oglan

rigorous Janissarie training school

agha

senior offical

Adrianople

capital of Ottoman Empire from 1365-1453

Akçe

A silver coin, the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire, later replaced by the silver kurus and the gold Lira

Akinci

Irregular light cavalry

bashi-bazouk

irregular soldiers of the Ottoman army,noted for their lack of discipline,lived off loot

Bektashi

Dervish sect, closely associated with Janissaries. Banned by Mahmud II in 1826

bey

chief of tribe

beylerbeyi

provincial administrator

bombard

a large-caliber, front-loading medieval cannon or mortar, used chiefly in sieges for throwing heavy stone balls.

Bosporus

twenty mile strait that divides Istanbul in two

boza

a beer like drink favored by the army

Bursa

city in northwestern Turkey , capital of Ottoman Empire from 1326 to 1365 The mausoleums of early Ottoman sultans here

cadi or Kadi

judge

caliph

rmeans "successor" or "representative". The early leaders of the Muslim nation following Muhammad's (570–632) death were called "Khalifat Rasul Allah", means the political successors to the messenger of God

caliphate

office of the Successor of the Prpphet

caravanserai or kervansaray

fortified caravan stations

cubuk

long,wooden pipe

defterdar

treasurer

Dervish

member of  a Sufi religious mystical order

Devshirme

Turkish for 'gathering' levy of boys (usually Christian) from subject peoples

Divan

Sultan's Council of ministers

Edine (Adrianople)

capital of Ottoman Empire from 1365-1453, location of the Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575

esnaf

guild

fatwa

a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an Islamic scholar.

fez

A red felt hat. The Ottoman adopted the Fez from the Greeks[ during their conquest of Byzantine Anatolia. Made the national headgear by .Mahmud Khan II. Banned by Mustafa Kemal .

firman royal decree

gedik

license granted to workmen

Ghazi

Turkomen Muslim holy warriors

Grand Vizier

Sultan's chief minister

hafiz

one who has memorized the Koran

hammam

bath house

harem

from Arabic for forbidden,women of a household or woman's quarters

hoja

teacher

iman

head of local Muslim community, prayer leader

imaret

soup kitchen for poor and students

Iznik

city in northwest Turkey famous for tiles and ceramics

jami

large mosque

kaftan

a man's cotton or silk cloak buttoned down the front, with full sleeves, reaching to the ankles and worn with a sash.

kazan

large copper kettle used by Janissaries, symbolically turned over as sign of revolt

Kösk

kiosk made of wood and clad with metal stones, with multiple stories, mainly used as a summer or winter recreational residence

Janissaries

Turkish: (yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier", elite standing army

Jelali revolts

A series of rebellions in Anatolia against the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries started the leadership of Celâl, an Alevi preacher.The name of the chief rebel was later used by Ottoman histories to define other uprisings of similar nature.

kadi or cadi

judge

kulliye

complex of charitable and educational institions around a mosque

kadi-askers

judges of the army

Kafes

'The Cage' was a part of the Palace of ( Apartments of the Crown Prince ) Topkapi  and later other palaces where possible successors to the throne were kept in isolation until they would become sultan.

kanun

law made by the Sultan

Kapudan Pasha

Admiral-in-Chief

karagoz

puppet shadow theater, named for character

kervansaray or cervansaray

fortified caravan stations

Konya

capital of Sultanate of Rûm from 1097 to 1243,has a reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey, source for export of "Turkey carpets" to Europe during the Renaissance.Home of the Mevlevi Sufi order

kufic

angular style of Islamic script, originating in Kufa, Iraq

lonja

lodge hall of a guild

Mahdi

The ' righteous one' who is supposed to rule before end of the world

Malmuks

a military caste of former slaves who overthrew the Ayyubid dynasty and ruled Egypt from 1250 and continued to rule for the Ottomans after the conquest of Selim I in 1517.

medrese

religious school or college attached to mosque

Mevlevi

a sufi order famous for Whirling Dervishes, followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rum

mesjid

small local mosque

millet

an autonomous self-governing religious community, each organized under its own laws and headed by a religious leader, who was responsible to the central governmen

mihrab

prayer nicha in a mosque,denotes direction of Mecca

minaret

tower of mosque from which prayer is called

minber

pulpet

mufti

legal scholar of Islam

muezzin

mosque offical who gives prayers

nishanji

secretaries of state

nargileh

water pupe, hookah

Nizam-i-Jedid

 'New Order' reforms of Selim III 1789-1807

Nizamis Ottoman soldiers who replaced the Janissaries

Oghuz Turks

early group of loosely linked nomadic Turkic peoples

pasha

' Sultan's foot' lord, high political or military leader

Padishah

emperor

raya

peasant

Safavid empire

dynasty in Persia 1501–1736

sanjak

province

saray

palace

sekbans irregular troops of musketeers

sebil

public fountain

selamlik

men's quarters

Seljuk

Turkish dynasty preceeding the Ottomans

serasker

 a Vizier who commanded the army

sharia

sacred law of Islam

Shia

sect of Muslims (esp in Iran) who hold that succession to the Prophet passed through the line of his son-in-law Ali

sipahis

cavalry maintained by land grants, timar or ziamat

Sögüt

Ottoman capital from 1299-1325 in northwest Turkey

Sublime Ports

Named for the gate to the headquarters of the Grand Vizier in Topkapi Palace in Istanbul,came to mean the Ottoman foreign office or government

Sufism

mystical form of Islam, a follower is called a Sufi or Dervish

sultan

ruler of the Selkuk and Ottoman Turks 'holder of power'

sultana

female member of sultan's family, mistress

Sunni

majority sect of Muslim who do not hold that succession to the Prophet passed through the line of his son-in-law Ali

sword of Osman (Taklide-Seif)

sword symbolically girded by new Sultan

Tanzimat

Reorganization

tekke

dervish lodge or monastery

timar

military land grants to support the sipahis ( cavalry)

Topkapi Palace

primary residence in the city of the Ottoman Sultans, from 1465 to 1853

Türbe

tomb or mausolem

tughra

highly stylized calligrahic symbol of the Sultan

ulema

doctors of religious law

vizier

a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister

voivode

Hungarian governor

waqf

Endowment to mosque, typically denoting a building or plot of land for Muslim religious or charitable purposes

Whirling Dervishes

followers of a the Mevlevi sufi order famous for Whirling Dervishes, followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rum, who whirl as a form of dhikr (remembrance of God).

yataghan

two and a half foot long sword used by Janissaries

ziamet

large militery fiefs held by officer sipahis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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